Backend- The first term that will catch your eye while working with October is the backend. The Backend in October refers to the admin panel/interface you view in order to manage the entire website.
Theme- Similar To WordPress a theme in October decides what your site will look like. It also contains all of the files needed to create the pages stored within a theme. You can have multiple themes within your site, each of which can be activated from the backend whilst in ‘Settings’ Each theme is stored in the local file system and is editable using any text/code editor.
Media- A library accessed through the backend and used to store site assets such as images, videos, and files in a very user friendly way. It can be easily integrated with external services such as Amazon S3 or Rackspace if required.
Layout- Layouts are used to store repeatable page contents or the structural elements for a group of similar pages such as the head, navigation, footer, and script tags along with their contents. October supports the use of multiple layouts so it's good practice to find similar pages and assign them to use a single layout.
Page- Pages in the backend of October correlate to the frontend pages visitors see using the URL defined and contain the page content. Each page is contained within its assigned layout. Dynamic pages act as placeholders for content that is retrieved from a database and can generate multiple front end versions. A good example of this would be a blog post page displaying hundreds of separate blog posts from a single dynamic page.
Partial- Partials are pieces of code or data that can be embedded in pages and layouts. They are useful for storing data that may be used multiple times within a site and in various locations such as a telephone number. If the number changes it’s easy to update the partial. The number will update wherever the partial has been used.
Content- Content files are very similar to partials but are designed to hold an often repeated block of text (in raw text, HTML, or markdown formats). They are designed to be edited by non-tech users without using HTML.
Component- Components are one of the most versatile features of October. They are similar to in how they are used partials but are a lot more powerful. They are registered by plugins and are not stored in the theme directory but within the associated plugin folder on the site root. They can register their own AJAX handlers, inject variables to a page and enable pages to use dynamic content.